As receding gums are one of the most common dental health problems , which should be treated properly, not only for aesthetic reasons but for the serious problems that can result.
Among the main causes of gum retraction, periodontal diseases such as chronic periodontitis, or harmful habits such as aggressive brushing are noteworthy.
In the Dr Roze dental clinic which is the best dental clinic in Dubai we have Dr. David Rose who is the founder of this clinic, specialist in Implantology and Oral Surgery from the Paris VI University.
Main causes of gum retraction
It is the main cause of gum retraction, and we can divide it into two, depending on the stage of the disease:
Gingivitis: consists of the inflammation of the gum around the tooth, because of the accumulation of food debris or dental plaque between the teeth. Due to poor hygiene, this plaque composed of bacteria and calcareous deposits accumulates forming what is commonly known as tartar.
These bacteria are grouped forming dental calculations, which can only be eliminated by a professional by performing a dental cleaning or prophylaxis.
Gingivitis is a very common disease among adults, affecting 91% of the population, and the main symptom is bleeding from the gum during brushing, a healthy gum should never bleed during it. It should be mentioned that in smokers patients this sign is masked and it is very unlikely that they will bleed, even if they suffer from the disease, for this reason we recommend that you go regularly to a periodontist (a dentist specialized in periodontal pathologies and implants).
Periodontitis: Also known as pyorrhea, it begins as an untreated gingivitis . Bacterial plaque accumulates between the gum and the tooth forming what we call periodontal pocket and penetrating more and more to the root of the same. Destroying with the passage of time the bone and all the connective tissue that surrounds the tooth, so that they are loosened, gaining mobility, and causing in the most advanced cases the loss of teeth.
Abrasion of the gums due to poor brushing
Brushing the teeth aggressively and with very hard brushes can cause the destruction of the tissue that forms the gum and with it a gingival recession. In these cases it is usually indicated the placement of a gum graft to recover the root or roots affected. After grafting the appearance of the gum should be normal.
Gums damaged due to bad orthodontics
The movement of the teeth itself does not cause gingival retraction, but if the teeth are taken out of the bone table it can be a predisposing factor so that later any trauma, accumulation of tartar or excessive force in brushing will eventually cause recession. These cases also have a good prognosis if a gum graft is placed.
Tobacco can cause a loss of gum because it blocks the arrival of blood and affects the immune system, thereby facilitating the action of bacteria and the progress of periodontal disease.
Traumatisms in the mouth
A blow or trauma to the mouth due to an accident is another cause that can cause the loss of periodontal tissue.
When a patient has retracted gums has lost part of the gum, exposing the root of the tooth. It is a very common problem and should be treated not only for aesthetic reasons.
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Risk factors for periodontal disease
There are several factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, that affect the health of our gums. Among the main ones are:
- Genetic factors: this is proven through scientific studies, that there are people more likely to suffer some kind of disease in the gums, while others despite not wearing proper hygiene are completely immune.
- Systemic diseases : Diseases such as diabetes or AIDS or any other that affects the immune system, cause an increased risk of developing infections and therefore may favor the bacterial plaque to advance faster by destroying the support of the teeth.
- Hygiene: It is a fundamental factor, a correct dental hygiene helps to get rid of the plaque that accumulates in the teeth, preventing it from accumulating in the form of tartar and eliminating the main cause of periodontal disease.
- Stress: It is one of those invisible factors that affect the health of our gums. According to a study by Tufts University, it has been shown that there is a significant relationship between the level of emotional stress and periodontal disease. Stress works by decreasing the effectiveness of our defenses.
- Tobacco: As we have mentioned before, smoking is another of the risk factors that affect the health in general and the gums in particular.
Solutions to the problem of retracted gums
The first thing, before performing any type of surgical treatment, is to eliminate the cause that has produced the retraction of the gum. for example: patients who perform an aggressive brushing, along with a diet of acidic products such as citrus fruits that can cause the gum to diminish and wear of the enamel and the root of the teeth.
We should re-educate them in diet and hygiene habits, for later and in the cases that it is necessary to carry out some of the following treatments.
- Coronally mobilized flap (Gum Stretch): In patients who have preserved the interdental papillae (gingival triangle between teeth and teeth), a gum stretching technique can be performed, created by professors Massimo de Sanctis and Giovanni Zucchelli. If the gum allows it, it is stretched and the root of the tooth is covered, returning to the gums and teeth their habitual appearance, without the need to resort to a graft.
- Gum micrografts: Combined with the previous technique, tissue from the palate is taken through a minimal incision and the gum is covered. Traditionally it was necessary to perform surgery of greater length, but the new techniques allow a minimally invasive microsurgery, for which it is only necessary to give 2 or 3 sutures on the